A link to a list of mail -order rose sellers.
There are a lot of mail order companies that specialize in roses. Here is a list of 10 from the University of Illinois extension website . Unfortunately Pickering and Vintage are no longer in business. I liked Pickering - if the roses are from Canada, they've got to be hardy, right? Some of the companies list how old a rose is known to be, others don't, so do some research, and check more than one place. They don't all offer the same selection.
Catagories of roses that are pre-1600 are albas, centifolias, damasks, and gallicas. Not all roses in those categories are pre-1600.
Period roses don't rebloom, so if you have room, you might want to consider adding some David Austin roses, an English breeder who has developed roses with the old look and smell that rebloom. Here's a link to a short explanation: http://www.paulbardenroses.com/austins/index.html
I'll also add one more store to the list: https://www.roguevalleyroses.com/ in Oregon. They have a search by several different categories, like year, and also by breeder; I'll mention 3 rose breeders of note. One is Ralph Moore, considered the father of modern miniature roses, who was still working until age 101! Another is Dr Griffith Buck, who worked on cold-hardy roses (hybrid tea) in Iowa. The last is Paul Barden, who specializes in creating new gallicas. It's worth looking at the pictures - he's got some really interesting colors.